Pfannstiel Lanthemann Ceroni J. Modigliani Parisot Patani Restellini Wayne
Nº 336 Nº 363 Nº 200 YES 36/1917 NO ? YES
Date 1917 -1918 or 1919? (MOMA dates c. 1919 - Wayne c. 1919)
Title The great nude - Grand nu couché - Lying nude - Reclining Nude - Nu couché - Chakoska - Nude on a divan - Reclining nude
Materials oil on canvas
Size 72.4 x 116.5 cm ?
Signature: Signed "modigliani" bottom right
Actual Location Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA (Inv. Nº 13.1950)
Provenance -?-

Netter Collection, Paris ( 1926-1928)
Modern Paintings, Inc. / Alex Reid & Lefevre, London - nº 156/28 (1928-1932)
(Acquired from Netter through Etienne Bignou, Paris - nº 1074 and Florent Willems in a 50% share)
Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., New York - nº M-3280 (1932 - 1934 - 1946)
Josef von Sternberg Collection, Los Angeles (1946 - 1949)
(Acquired from Seligmann & Co. through Pierre F. Nesi, Beverly Hills)
Sale: the Josef von Sternberg collection, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, November 22, 1949, lot 92

Museum of Modern Art, New York, Inv. Nº 13.1950
(Acquired at the Josef von Sternberg collection, Parke-Bernet auction with Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund)

In Process

Bibliography -?-

Salmon, Modigliani, sa vie et son oeuvre,Ed. des Quatres Chemins, Paris, 1926, pl. 33
Schwarz, Modigliani, Paris, 1927, pl. 2
Dale, Modigliani, Knopf, New York, 1929, pl. 19
Pfannstiel, "catalogue presume" Modigliani. L'Art et la Vie. Preface de Louis Latourrettes, Seheur, Paris, 1929, p. 53 (dated 1919)
Einstein, Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1931, pl. 6
Venturi, Pittura Contemporanea, Milano, 1948, pl. 9
T. Soby, Modigliani, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1949, pl. 51
Scheiwiller, Arte Moderna Italiana nº 8 Amedeo Modigliani, U. Hoepli Ed. Milan, 1950, pl. 23
T. Soby, Modigliani, Museum of Modern art, New York, catalogue exp. 1951, p. 45
Lipchitz, Amedeo Modigliani, H.N. Abrams, New York, 1952, p. 1
Lipchitz, Amedeo Modigliani, H.N. Abrams, New York, 1953, pl. 42-43
Jedlicka, Modigliani, E. Rentsch, Zürich, 1953, pl. 43
T. Soby, Modigliani, Museum of Modern art, New York, catalogue exp. 1954, p. 49
Barr, Masters of Modern Art, Museum of Modern art, New York, 1954 , p. 105
Lipchitz, Amedeo Modigliani, H.N. Abrams, New York, 1954, pl. 42/43
Lavagnino, L'Arte Moderna, 1956, p. 1032 ?
Pfannstiel, Modigliani et son oeuvre, etude critique et catalogue raisonne, bibliotheque des arts, Paris, 1956 - nº 336 (dated 1919)
Salmon, La vie passionnée de Modigliani, Vervier, Paris, 1957
Ceroni, Amedeo Modigliani: Peintre; Suivi des Souvenirs de Lunia Czechowska, Edizioni del Milione, 1958 - nº 132
Roy , Modigliani, Skira, Lausanne, 1958, p. 86 (dated 1919)
Cartier, Modigliani Nus, Hazan, Paris, 1958, pl. 7
Modigliani J. , Modigliani: Man and Myth, Orion Press, New York, 1958
Univ. of California, Modigliani paintings and drawings, Los Angeles County Museum, 1961, pp. 28 - 62, pl. 40 (dated c. 1919)
Salmon, Modigliani: A Memoir, New York, 1961, pp. 160-161 (dated 1918)
Modigliani J. , Modigliani sans légende, Gruend, Paris, 1961 - nº 62
Gindertael, Shop libre diffusion, 1967, p, 49, pl. 23
Werner, Amedeo Modigliani, Cercle d'art, Paris,1968, p. 130
Lanthemann, Modigliani, catalogue raisonné: sa vie, son oeuvre, son art, G. Condal, Barcelona, 1970 - nº 363 (dated 1919)
Ceroni & Piccioni, Il dipinti di Modigliani, Rizzoli, Milano, 1970 - nº 200 (dated 1917)
Arno, New York, 1972, p. 45
Hubbard, Modigliani and the painters of Montparnasse, Lamplight Publ. New York, 1975, pl. 23, p. 33 (dated c. 1919)
Mann, Modigliani, Thames and Hudson, London, 1980, p. 143 - nº 103
Zurcher, Modigliani, Ed. F. Hazan, Paris, 1980 - nº 34
Carluccio, Leymarie, Negri, Russoli, Brunhammer, École de Paris, Rive Gauche, Paris, 1981, p. 215
Hall, Modigliani, Phaidon, Oxford, 1984 - nº 38
Roy, Modigliani, Nathan, Paris, 1985, p. 102
Schmalenbach, Amedeo Modigliani, Prestel, Munich, 1990, p. 114 - nº 63 (dated circa 1919)
Parisot, Catalogue Raisonee Modigliani, Graphis Arte, 1991 - nº 36/1917
Parisot, Modigliani, Pierre Terrail, Paris, 1992, p. 119 (dated 1919)
Kruszynski. Amedeo Modigliani: Portraits and Nudes. Munich, 1996, p. 83 (dated 1919)
Wayne, Modigliani & the Artists of Montparnasse, Abrams-Albright-knox gallery, New York, 2002, p. 118 - nº 41 (dated c. 1919)
Fraquelli, Modigliani, Fort Worth and Paris, in Burlington Magazine, 145, 2003 pp. 254-255.
Klein, Modigliani: Beyond the Myth, The Jewish Museum, 2004-2005, p. 66 - fig. 13 (dated c. 1919)
López Blázquez, Modigliani, Polìgrafía, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 96-96 (dated 1917)
Fraquelli, Modigliani and His Models. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts. London, 2006, pp. 122-123 - nº 37 (dated c. 1919)
Soto Caba, Modigliani, The timeless face, Libsa, Madrid, 2007
Marini, Modigliani , Skira, France, 2008, pp. 18-19 (dated c. 1919)
Ireson, Fraquelli, Modigliani, London, Tate Modern, Skira Rizzoli, London, 2017, p. 132

In process

Exhibitions -?-

London, Paintings by Amedeo Modigliani, Reid & Lefevre Galleries, 1929
New York, Paintings by Amedeo Modigliani 1884-1920, De Hauke & Co. Inc., 1929 - nº 22
Chicago, Paintings by Amedeo Modigliani, Arts Club of Chicago, 1929
Brussels, Modigliani: Retrospective Exhibition. Palais des beaux-arts, 1933 - nº 61
Basel, Amedeo Modigliani, Kunsthalle, 1934
Chicago, Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings from the Josef von Sternberg Collection, Arts Club of Chicago, 1946
New York, Twentieth Century Italian Art, The Museum of Modern Art, 1949
New York, Recent Acquisitions, The Museum of Modern Art, 1950
Cleveland, Modigliani: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, Cleveland Museum of Art,1951
New York, Modigliani: Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, The Museum of Modern Art, 1951
New York, XXVth Anniversary Exhibitions: Paintings, The Museum of Modern Art, 1955
Boston, Museum of fine Arts, 1957
New York, 30th Anniversary Special Installation - Towards the 'New' Museum, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959
MIlano, Arte Italiana del XX Secolo da Collezioni Americane, Palazzo Reale, 1960
Roma, Arte Italiana del XX Secolo da Collezioni Americane, Galleria Nazionale d' Arte Moderna, 1960
Boston. Modigliani: Paintings and Drawings. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, 1961 -nº 40
Los Angeles. Modigliani: Paintings and Drawings. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum, 1961 - nº 40
New York, Art in a Changing World: 1884-1964, The Museum of Modern Art, 1964
New York, The nudes of Modigliani, Perls Galleries, 1966 - nº 9
New York, Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Memorial 1877-1970, The Museum of Modern Art, 1970
New York, Amedeo Modigliani; loan exhibition, Acquavella Galleries, Inc. 1971 - nº 48 (dated c. 1919)
New York, Modigliani,1972 - nº 45
London, Arte Italiana, Royal Academy of Arts, 1989
Venezia, Arte Italiana,Palazzo Grassi, 1989
Düsseldorf, Amedeo Modigliani: Malerei, Skulpturen, Zeichnungen, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1991 - nº 59
Zurich, Amedeo Modigliani: Malerei, Skulpturen, Zeichnungen, Kunsthaus, 1991 - nº 59
New York, Selections from the Permanent Collection of Painting and Sculpture, The Museum of Modern Art, 1993
Buffalo NY, Modigliani and the artists of Montparnasse, Albright-Knox Gallery, 2002-2003 - nº 41
Fort Worth, Modigliani and the artists of Montparnasse, Kimbell art Museum, 2003 - nº 41
London, Modigliani and his models, Royal Academy of Arts, 2006 - nº 37
Moscow, Meeting Modigliani, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, 2007
Bonn, Amedeo Modigliani: Ein Mythos der Moderne, Bundesrepublik, 2009 - nº 127
London, Modigliani, Tate Modern, 2017-2018

In process

Other Nº 61 in D' Atri papers dated 1918 then corrected to 1919 and finally in pencil 1916 - titled Grand nu couché - 73 x 116.5 located in MOMA, NY.


Detail of signature in visible normal light:


Painting is covered with a high glossy varnish layer, done by the artist, it is recorded in several sources that Modigliani wanted to imitate the feel & texture of
the old masters, a modern Titian, so he varnished his painting to achieve a similar glossy craquelure of the surface (also some of the newest studies have
discovered some other were varnished later).

This is one of the main reasons to avoid strong cleaning in the Modigliani nudes, first because they lost the red/orange veils mixed with he varnish.

I have no information of any cleaning procedure in this case, but the surface seems to be clean and the painting when live maintain the reds in perfect
shape (many known photos adjust the red surface to a more softer orange or almost pink in photographic effects).


The eye / eyebrow / eyelash / nose of this painting are absolutely unique and there is not a similar profile painting with such a perfect stroke and contour all over
the rest of the Modigliani nudes production.

face detail


This painting presents holes in the 4 corners


The painting has changed frames at least 3 recorded times:

frame changes
The painting framed London, Modigliani, Tate Gallery, 2017:

The painting framed London, Modigliani, Tate Gallery, 2017


This painting was part of the Modigliani technical research study in 2018

Extract from:
The Modigliani technical research study "Modigliani's painted Nudes 1916- 17
Burnstock, Duvernois, Stringari
Burlington Magazine - April 2018

Modigliani employed a consistent and limited range of pigments for painting the nudes, including lead white with a low proportion of zinc, vermilion red, an organic red lake pigment,
iron oxide-containing pigments including sienna, ochre and umber-colored ones, Prussian blue, French ultramarine, calcium phosphate (bone) black and viridian green. There are
consistencies in the combinations of pigments for flesh; these include a mixture of white with vermilion and a separate application of a transparent red lake.


In resume the main identified colors/pigments in Modigliani's nudes (and this means all the 1916-17 nudes) are:

1.- Lead White with a low proportion of zinc.
2.- Vermilion red
3.- Organic red lake
4.- Sienna
5.- Ochre
6.- Umber-colored ones
7.- Prussian blue
8.- French ultramarine
9.- Bone black
10.- Viridian green

This does not means that a painting has to present the 10 pigments, this are the pigments found in all the analyzed nudes:

- "Nude 1" have Prussian blue but not the French Ultramarine (both are blues)
- "Nude 2" have French Ultramarine but no Prussian Blue
- "Nude 3" have Sienna
- "Nude 4" have Ochre
and so on.

There is no need that the same painting have all the 10 detected, you can achieve the same effect using just one blue instead of the two detected.

Mix, Vermilion red + Sienna and you have the perfect orange skin in Modigliani from 1914 to 1917-18
Mix Vermilion + Sienna + White and you have the perfect pink skin in Modigliani from 1917-8 to 1919

General Museum technical studies have reached the conclusion that is a very short palette, a simple range made with pre industrial oils (non artisan, but small scale industrial oils).


  This page is a work on progress, nothing in this page should be considered as final or definitive.