the man his art On the experts Fakes & Forgeries On the market
from Born to Venice Drawings Past experts Myth and reality on his fakes The market
Arrival to Paris Sculpture Catalogues done in the past Famous forgers trust in the market?
Becoming an artist Painting Actual /Living experts known and undoubted fakes Auctions & Modigliani
on the path All the attributed works Catalogues of actual experts how to detect a fake Galleries & Museums
The artist Exhibitions during his lifetime How should an expertise must be done what to do with forgeries and forgers Famous collectors fromt the past to actual times
The myth Exhibitions until today News on the experts Art Historians, a trustable source? News on the market
Selected bibliography on him News on his art References  and Bibliography on the experts references on fakes & forgeries references & links on the market


He left a small bunch (27 confirmed by experts, maybe 31-35 possible).
His health, his low capacity to acquire good and constant materials and the little time he was able to work, made him a short run sculptor

All the main ones are at present in museums.

"You can use the fingers on one hand to number the works that are in private collections"

Probably we will never know how many of the works recognized as authentic are really by him, but let's say that it's really not an important amount in comparison to the figures associated with other names such as Giacometti, Picasso, Rodin, Degas, Brancusi, etc...
Since the "Livorno Joke" the "EXPERTS" with a catalogue raisonné on this matter act just as mere copyists of the previous one

Note: he only worked in stone, marble and wood, he never did a bronze.


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THE LIVORNO´S JOKE

A huge joke involving Modigliani, and four ordinary young men, which took place 20 years ago.

There is a myth that says that in 1909 after negative reviews from critics a 25 years old Modigliani dumped all his sculptures into the Fosso Reale, a ditch of the Medici Canal. ( It´s like the voice of Sofia Petrillo saying: Livorno 1919 a young and handsome...)
In 1984, to celebrate the 100th year of the birth of Modigliani , Vera Durbé, the manager of Livorno’s Progressive Museum of Contemporary Art, decides to organize an exhibition of Modigliani’s sculptures .

Her idea, included: The search for the legendary heads. So then the administrative council, approved the dredging of the works from the ditch.
The excavation work took place in July, under the eyes of many who stood waiting excitedly for any news of the recovery of these long-awaited works of art. Their wait lasted a week and then three stone sculptures, in the style of Modigliani, were found.

They were presented to the many art critics who claimed, immediately after examining them closely, that the heads were the original work carved by the hands of Modigliani .
At first, it seems a happy ending, but they were forgetting that Livorno is a city famous for its pranks and practical jokes and here it is always possible that things are not always as they seem. Therefore, after a month of much talk and awards regarding the three newly-recovered sculptures, three Livornese students: Pietro Luridana, Pierfrancesco Ferrucci and Michele Guarducci, came forward claiming to have sculpted one of the three heads, in the garden of one of their houses, using drills and other tools bought from a local hardware store. They presented photos of themselves in action and the splinters of stone pertaining to the sculpture in question. Then, on national television they re-enacted the creation of the masterpiece.
Not long after, a sculptor named Angelo Froglia laid claim to the other two heads. Angelo Froglia was, in fact, just an ordinary dockworker who was passionate about art and was a talented sculptor. He claimed that he came up with the idea to pretend to have sculpted these pieces as a way of showing how art critics are led more by market trends rather than their own perceptions and the true worth of each individual piece of work. Both the three students and Froglia achieved their goals as in the end the joke was on the art critics who had previously slammed the work of Modigliani.
Talk of these events lasted a while. Mainly due to the fact that too many acclaimed art critics had already declared the authenticity of the three heads. However, although it was, in fact, the three students and Froglia who had, separately, sculpted the heads which had been excavated from the canal, there were still those who thought that they were liars who had conspired together to pretend to be the true sculptors of the heads, and so continued to believe that the sculptures were the original work of Modigliani. The reality is that only in Livorno could two completely different, unrelated groups of people have come up with exactly the same successful practical joke.
to get more info:
1.- On video
2.- Actually On sale
the interesting issue here is all the art experts saying they see the undoubted hand of Modigliani and how Jeanne kept silent waiting to see what happened at the end to give the last word (if she was sure they were fakes why did she kept quiet?), and a museum director "poor Vera" that had a total crisis.

Alla ricerca di Modì
Angelo Froglia e la performance che mise in crisi la critica external link >>

Forgeries in works of art:
"The great joke of the Modiglianis, the authors of the fakes wanted to place doubt on art critics"
El país, 7th october 1987.  external link >>

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Not only should this Joke be mentioned, if you do a little research you can easily find many bronze casts of known and unknown works that, same as the lithographical, engravings and some more crap, were never done by Modigliani or under his authorization..

 

As an example:

Bronze Sculpture; Modigliani ,Amedeo, (after cast), Tete de Femme, Head of Woman, 20 inch.
Item D9824830

A bronze sculpture with brown patina on square marble base by Amedeo Modigliani (Italian, 1884 to 1920). Tete de Femme. Posthumous edition: EAI. Inscribed verso: Modigliani / EAI. Foundry stamp lower left: Vasuani Foundry. With a copy of a letter of authenticity written by Phillippe Cezanne and dated February 19, 1985.

Note: This bronze was cast with the permission and under the supervision of Jeanne Modigliani, daughter of the artist. This bronze is numbered E.A.I which indicates ...[more information available ...]


This is Jeanne making use of her "Droit Morale" In the name of taking care of her father´s oeuvre.

I have read here that the archives legales Modigliani/aka Christian Parisot is doing the same claiming for moral right inheritance from the close friendship with Jeanne and showing 5 new casts in bronze that they claim are exclusive limited editions...

You must know that the moral rights for Modigliani don't exist, the limit for them is 70 years (expired in 1990) so he is not authorized by any superior moral figure than himself.


Anyway this is similar to what happens with other works in bronze:
LINK ON DEGAS

LINK ON THE DEGAS MESS ON CASTS, IT REALLY DESERVES THE TIME
LINK ON RODIN


So if you ever own or wanted to own an ORIGINAL SCULPTURE by Modigliani, just remember that it may take a figure with 7 or 8 zeros from your bank account and you will have to fight with the richest collectors of the whole world to get it...
(last one reached €43,185,000/£35,886,735/$52,620,923 Christies June 2010)

And act as you would act if investing in a financial product, ask for as many proofs of provenance as you can, chemical information, etc. etc.

There are no cheap ones and the possible lost ones would be totally impossible to certify.

Look what happened to Frank and klaus Perls + the Metropolitan museum:

One of the best friends of Perls said in an interview:

"It's better for Klaus to take the loss than to admit he was sold a fake." And, anyway, he now has a very attractive doorstop.

I do not say this is not an original, but there are so many doubts that it even requires a little investigation by the Metropolitan Museum in New York that actually owns it:
 


Link to the article: LINK - Link to the page in the Met museum: LINK
Another article related: LINK
An more:
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In a future I will place here all the known and recognized works in Ceroni.
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