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1915

31 years

Recently in his 30's, he seems to be for the first time on his way.  The relation with Hastings with its ups and downs goes on, they are famous for their public fights but in the end seem to fit each other.

Guilliaume is his "gallerist" and this is the time of the relation with Rivera, Picasso, Kisling, Jacob and Apollinaire.

The portraits evolve to create his masterworks, his paintings show that he has solved the problem that will later create the dissolution of the Cubist movement (the use of line vs. the golden mean.)

He develops his personal evolution away from Cubism to create his own style.

He lives with Hastings at 13, Rue Norvins in Montmartre but in November he is at 13, Place Emile Goudeau (in the Bateau Lavoir, again) on his own.

Modigliani in his studio
Source: LINK
Paul Guilliaume

Diego Rivera in his studio
on the rue du Depart, 1915.
Courtesy Cenidiap, Mexico.
In November Guilliaume sends to America-----using Lucien Lefebvre-Foinet------the first works by Modigliani recorded to have arrived in the States, 20 drawings, 1 pastel, 1 oil and 2 stone sculptures.

He is getting attention and recognition including various mentions in articles, magazines and newspapers of the time.
Paul Guilliaume. Source: LINK
Modigliani & Guilliaume Ca. 1915. Source: LINK

The Guilliaume office, original photo and reconstruction miniature
full of Modigliani masterworks. Source: Link and own

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1916

32 years


Kisling invites Modigliani to work with Leopold Zborowski.

In March he exhibits a few drawings at "Noir et Blanc" in an exhibition organized by the sister of Paul Poiret.
Also the same month Zaya´s Modern Gallery in New York exhibits one of his sculptures.

His exhibits increase (France, Zurich, NY, Paris) he is a figure totally introduced into the art movement and one of the greatest successes of the year is the exhibition at Lyre et Palette with more than 14 paintings by him.

In personal terms as his financial problems decrease he becomes more independent so his relation with Hastings changes, the fights become more extreme and crude so finally they break up in Spring.

He gets involved in a relationship with Simone Thiroux, a Canadian woman who was in Paris trying to become a painter and was a close friend of Hastings.  The relation will finish at the end of the year or the beginning of the new one after he discovers Jeanne Hébuterne at the Academie Colarossi in December.

- Simone Thiroux was a French-Canadian (c. 1892-1921), who took a degree from either Laval Univ or Univ of Montréal. Just before the war, when she was 21, she inherited some money and went to Paris to live with an aunt and study medicine. Instead, she got involved with Modi and in May 1917 had a son by him, Gérard, whom Modi did not acknowledge.

The infant was adopted by an elderly childless couple named Sandhal, became a priest or some sort of religious, and did not want to be recognized as Modi's son. Simone, thrown out by her aunt when she had the child, worked as a nurse in a charity hospital and died there of TB in 1921.-

this famous drawing of the gun episode is related to when Hastings went to a party for Leger with a new boyfriend and Modigliani went to the same party to have a fight with the boyfriend.

The child was never recognized by him and did not receive any help from the family in Livorno or his half sister Jeanne.

12th August 1916. Modigliani, Picasso and Andre Salmon in the summer of 1916, photos by Jean Cocteau. Source: LINK

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1917

33 years


Finally Modigliani works for Zborowski, who becomes his dealer:  he produces his works in exchange for 15 francs per day.
(Also, Soutine comes to share the studio.)

(Probably it was not the best idea to change dealer, but the war changed everything, and Guilliaume was at that moment suffering a lot of changes so to get a new dealer was logical at some point.  Maybe it became one of the reasons that affected Modi's demise and the curse that his art took in art history)

The first action taken by Zborowski was to get Modigliani under his close care:  Modi went to live at his house at 3, rue Joseph Bara.  That is going to be the location where many of his greatest nudes will be painted.

In May he exhibits a work at the Cheron gallery and at the Gallery Dada in Zurich and later in May he exhibits at the Paul Guilliaume gallery along with names of such importance as Cezanne, Matisse, Picasso and Derain (this can give a clear idea that he was considered as interesting an investment as the others.)

In June he moves on to live with Jeanne Hébuterne (aged 19 at that moment) in an apartment at 8 Rue de la grand Chaumière (rented by Zborowski.

Jeanne Hébuterne Source: LINK
Actual Image of the building at 8th Rue de la
Grand-Chaumiere Source: LINK
Zborowski and the door with the portrait of Soutine in 1917.
Source: LINK

The apartment for rent today (totally refurbished, it has nothing to do with the original conditions) Source: LINK

The culmination of the year comes with the opening of the exhibition of his nudes at Berthe Weill's gallery on December 3rd.

The exhibition was probably the greatest opportunity for the artist during his lifetime, but what should have been a great chance became a terrible story.

The nudes where so carnal and natural (the pubic hair was the main issue) that it was closed by the authorities and the only sale was a drawing and later 5 nudes that Berthe Weill kept for herself.

So the year ended with a terrible deception for the artist, but it was used by him to increase his love and commitment for his work.

Zborowski in 1916: Source LINK

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